Hundreds of police officers who have had complaints of racism against them upheld in the past five years have avoided the sack, the BBC has learned.
Almost 800 complaints were upheld against officers in the UK since March 2010, estimates suggest. Twenty officers were dismissed.
Forces in the UK received complaints against more than 6,600 officers.
The Association of Chief Police Officers (Acpo) said forces used various tactics to tackle racism.
One victim said there should be a zero tolerance approach.
Former Clash roadie Don Lorenzo, from Birmingham, was awarded £17,000 in damages in October 2011 after he claimed he was racially abused and assaulted by West Midlands Police.
“I don’t think the police want to face the prospect of having to sift out the bad apples,” he said.